KELAS AMPHIBIA PDF

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Log In Sign Up. Kristina Alfiana. Title : Classis Amphibia II. Introduction Amphibian is derived from the Greek meaning Amphi double and bios meaning life. So amphibia are animals that live with two forms of life, first in fresh water and then continued on the ground.

In amphibia there is a change in the respiratory and locomotor organs. On land these animals no longer needed so that the gills for respiration and stimulates the formation of reduced lung. On changes in locomotor, while in the water body amphibia be light because of the upward buoyant force and allow for movement of the fin, but when the land will be heavier body so that the fins can not withstand the weight of the body.

Therefore, it is necessary legs to walk, this leg is assumed as a modified form of the pinna pectoral and pelvic pinna in Pisces. Amphibian metamorphosis can be seen in the image below Andi, Image 1. Frog Metamorphic Amphibians have the characteristics, namely as follows: 1. Her body was covered skin slimy 2. It is a cold-blooded animal or Poikilotherm 3. Have two pairs of legs and on each leg there are swimming membranes between the toes and legs function to jump and swim in the water 5.

The eyes have additional membrane called niktitans membrane function while diving in the water 6. Breathing while still tadpole form of gills, as an adult breathing apparatus in the form of the lung and skin 7. The nose has a valve that serves to prevent water from entering into the oral cavity when diving in the water 8. Breed by releasing eggs and fertilized by the male outside its mother's body, which is called external fertilization 9.

Not having nails and claws, but there are some members that the tip of his finger amphibia experience penandukan shaping nails and claws, for example Xenopus sp. The skin has two glands are glands or glandular mucosa and berbintil usually poisonous Has the auditory system, in the form of auditory canal and tympanum known as tympanum Has the tooth structure, namely the maxillary teeth and the teeth of the palate.

Amphibia members consist of 4 orders namely Urodela Salamander , Apoda Caecilia , and Anura frogs and toads , Proanura already extinct. The body resembles a worm roundworm , segmented, not limbed, and reducing tail. This animal has a compact skin, eyes reduced, covered by skin or bone, retina in some species function as photoreceptors. Images 2. Example animal of Order Apoda or Gymnophiona 2.

The body of this order can be distinguished between the head, neck and body. Some species have gills and others breathe with lungs. In this part of the head there is a small eye and in some kind of order are the eye is reduced.

Members of the order Urodela live on land but cannot be separated from the water. Images 3. Example animal of Order Urodela or Caudata 3. Order Anura Anura has characteristics that are influenced by the habits of life and a place of life, in addition to the structure of the framework that indicates the characteristics of primitive and advanced characteristics. This structure appears in the shoulder girdle structure, namely the shape and firmisternal arsiferal shoulder girdle.

On the shoulder girdle arsiferal characterized by overlapping the scapula bone primitive traits , for example in Leiopelmatidae and Discoglossidae. While the shoulder girdle firmisternal characterized by non-overlapping scapula bone that normally occur in modern frogs Larasati, Image 4. Anura Order Morphology Image 5.

Purpose of Practicum 1. Observing the characteristics of both morphology and anatomy of one instance of the class Amphibian and the morphology of Bufo Sp. Or Rana Sp. Classify organisms into the levels of classification categories based on their characteristics.

Deepening the understanding of the various organ systems owned by a group of Frog Amphibian. Board section 2. Complete surgical equipment including iron cutter and scissors with sharp edges 3. Needle blotter 4. A magnifying lens or microscope stereo 5. Species of frog Bufo Sp. Cornstarch 3. Carbolic for disinfected 4. Procedure Before starting the main activities, prepare all the necessary equipment. To kill the specimen, enter chloroform with cotton into killing- jar. Then insert some frogs and tightly closed.

Wait a few minutes. After the frog killed, take and put on a board or box section. Perform the following activities: 1. Inspectio: observing specimens, alive or dead.

Noting that there are organs in the caput, truncus, and observe the extremitasnya. Describing the outer structure and name parts. Opened his mouth wide, observing the parts are in ramioris, then describe.

Checking the distinguishing characteristic between males and female frogs. Sectioning: put the specimen such that the ventral part of the body facing up. Nailing each palm of his hand with a pin. Doing surgery carefully with scissors or a knife section start at the midline of the sternum on.

To facilitate surgery, skin slightly removed using tweezers, then cut with slowly toward cranial up in the middle of the mandible. Then proceed to the caudal direction, until in the groin, and continued cuts to the thighs and arms. Lipatkan this skin laterally. At the time of this leather cutting, notice: a. Saccus lymphaticus subcutaneus b. Septa as a barrier between saccus lymphaticus To open the abdomen, abdominal muscle cut from posterior to anterior along the median line to cut the sternum.

Cut is continued to the side and then the muscles abdomen opened to the side so it looks the organs in the abdominal cavity. Noting the organs contained in the abdominal cavity.

The way these work is done to learn every organ system in the body of the animal in question. Began to pay attention to the topography of organs, then draw and name the parts. After the lifting of each organ system ranging from Systema digestive, respiratory Systema, Systema circulatorius, urogenital da Systema Systema nervorum.

In this activity, should be careful in order not to cut too bantak network of blood is spilled yng mengakibatakan observation difficult. If this happens wipe the blood by using cotton. Describe and name the parts of each organ system has been appointed until the entire system organ in the abdominal cavity was observed.

To learn nervorum system, especially the spinal nerves. Removing the entire contents of the abdominal cavity so that the vertebral column terlhat clear.

Between meetings spinal segments will come out to the left and to the right of the spinal nerves creamy. Viewing: Branchialis plexus, and plexus ischiococcygeus. To view the brain, scalp first removed and then carefully cut cranium to be carefully then brain can be removed.

Observing the parts of his brain. To observe the muscle system, must be taken from the first step to the skin of the abdomen open. Surgery followed to the thighs, calves and upper arms. Subsequently turn the frog's body so that the dorsal part of the body facing up. Perform surgery such as the ventral part of the body, so that the entire skin peeled off.

Observing muscle parts that can be seen from the outside. After identifying the muscles of the surface, then cut 3 pieces of muscles located in the ventral part of the right foot, to choose the muscles inside. Noting the large tendon Achiles. Result VII. This animal from the general characteristic is grouped into class of amphibian.

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Selamat sore mber, mimin mau bahas amfibi seukuran buaya, langsung saja! Mastodonsaurus, yang berarti "Kadal Bergigi Menonjol" merupakan Genus Amfibi Temnospondylus berukuran raksasa yang telah punah, yang dimasukan ke kelompok Capitosauria bersamaan dengan kelompok Amfibi Temnospondylus berukuran besar lainnya yang hidup secara akuatik. Genera Capitosauria biasanya memiliki ciri kepala yang berukuran besar dari tubuhnya. Mastodonsaurus hidup pada pertengahan Periode Jurassik ditempat yang sekarang merupakan Inggris, Jerman dan Rusia. Mastodonsaurus merupakan amfibi berukuran besar pada masanya, ia memiliki tengkorak berbentuk segitiga dengan panjang tengkorak mencapai 1 meter lebih, dengan rahang dilengkapi gigi-gigi tajam, pada bagian rahang atasnya terdapat lubang dibagian ujungnya dan jika kedua rahangnya menutup akan terlihat 2 buah gigi yang menjuntai keluar.

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Occidozyga adalah nama marga kodok dari Asia Tenggara. Kelompok kodok ini juga dikenal dengan nama bancet. Berikut ini daftar spesies dan agihannya menurut Iskandar dan Colijn [2] :. Dari Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas.

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