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Ronald M. Bracewell, Colin Cherry, James F. Gibbons, Willis W. Harman, Hubert Heffner, Edward W. Herold, John G. Linvill, Simon Ramo, Ronald A. Rohrer, Anthony E. Siegman, Charles Susskind, Frederick E. Terman, John G. Truxal, Ernst Weber, and John R. The cover was designed by Nicholas Krenitsky. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of McGraw-Hill series in electrical engineering.
Computer engineering and switching theory Includes index. Digital electronics. D5T36 Sum of Products 43 2. Register Transfers 8. Chapter 9 Computers Chapter 10 Microprocessors Chapter 11 Input-Output Operations Problems Index This book is an introductory text suitable for a one-semester course. It covers all the basic principles of digital systems and logic design and provides as well an introductory presentation to microprocessor and microprocessor-based sys- tems.
The present and growing importance of microprocessors makes it impor- tant that these versatile components be introduced into an engineering or com- puter science curriculum at the earliest opportunity.
The subject of logical variables and boolean algebra is covered in Chapter 1. Logic gates and logical connectives are described and analyzed. The binary number system is introduced here principally to allow some systemization of. Chapter 2 deals with the standard forms of logic functions and with Karnaugh maps. Chapter 3 considers basic combinational circuits including decoders, encoders, code converters, multiplexers and demultiplexers.
It is. Conven- tions dealing with the characterization of control terminals on chips are explained, and this discussion leads to a consideration of the convention of mixed logic which, in certain applications, is gaining popularity.
Examples are given of the newer logic symbols which are presently being introduced for com- binational and other components. The basic storage element, the flip-flop, is ex- amined in some detail in Chapter 4. A careful distinction is drawn between a latch and a flip-flop.
The characteristics required of a flip-flop in order that it be able to function properly in a synchronous system are examined. Assemblages of flip-flops into storage registers, shift registers, and counters are also consid- ered.
Again, in this chapter it is emphasized that the components described are available as integrated-circuit packages and examples of such devices are described. Chapter 5 deals with the subject of arithmetic operations, principally addition. The look-ahead carry principle is explained and analyzed. Memory is the subject of Chapter 6.
Chapter 7 introduces the subject of the analysis and design of sequential systems, both synchronous and fundamental mode. The concepts of flow diagrams, state diagrams, and tables are presented, and also described are procedures for eliminating redundant states. While there is some discussion of sequential circuits in Chapter 4 in connection with shift registers and counters, the formal organized and systematized presentation is given in Chapter 7.
The material on controllers in Chapter 8 is written with a view toward microprocessors. A microprocessor consists of a number of storage and work- ing registers, and ALU, and a controller. The controller appears to be endowed with uncanny abilities. It does exactly the right thing at the right time in precisely the right sequence and, having completed one task, proceeds uner- ringly to the next.
Truly enough, the controller is nothing more than a special- purpose sequential circuit involving no difficult concepts. Still, to the beginning student, the vagueness associated with the controller is inevitably a source of uneasiness. It is very difficult to accept the generalizations with which con- trollers are described when there is no concrete and specific example that can serve as a model.
Chapter 8 is written in a manner which will, hopefully, provide some reassurance to the uninitiated. It makes clear at the outset that all. Next there is presented the architecture of a very simple system which then requires a controller to be effective. A controller is designed in detail, first by using the procedures of Chapter 7 which yield a sequential system with a minimum number of states.
Next this initial controller is replaced by a shift-. The shift-register controller uses more hardware but has the great merit that the details of its operation are easily apparent and that required modifications for the purpose of elaboration can be added almost by inspection.
Also in this chapter the student encounters the concepts of the pro- gram counter, the memory address and the instruction register. The register, reader sees, in simple form, the overall architecture which characterizes a microprocessor as well as the typical content of a memory which holds instruc- tion and data for a stored program computation.
Chapter 9 is also written with an eye toward microprocessors. Here there is presented the architecture of a simple instruction computer. The struc-. The jump and subroutine call instructions are presented and some simple programs are written in an assembly language. Also in this chapter the subject of control by microprogramming is presented and simple examples given.
Some authors invent a hypothetical microprocessor to have an example through which to introduce the subject. Other authors undertake to include a number of real microproces- sors in their descriptions and explanations. This approach, all too often, leads to vague generalizations. A third widely used approach, also used in this text, is to concentrate on a single real device.
This method allows the analysis to be pointed and specific and, furthermore, a good familiarity with one device provides a background that allows an easy understanding of other devices. In this text, the microprocessor selected for study is the which is widely known and used and is highly regarded. Even though the has been up- dated by the , we have stayed with the precisely because it is some- what less sophisticated and, therefore, better suited to an introductory presen- tation.
The , its architecture, instructions, and programming is the subject of Chapter Chapter 1 is devoted entirely to input-output operation of 1. There is some more material in the text than can be covered conveniently in one semester.
From the author's prejudicial point of view an effective way of employing the book is to use it for one full semester and for about one fifth of a second semester.
Thereafter, for the remainder of the second semester, a new text should be adopted that covers microprocessors and microcomputers gen- erally and in greater depth. On the other hand, it is entirely feasible to cover the book in one semester by omitting some material which is not essential in a first approach.
Candidates for omission include the following sections: 1. A large number of homework problems have been provided. A solutions manual is available that instructors can obtain from the publisher.
I am grateful to Professor Mansour Javid, chairman of the Department of. Electrical Engineering at the City College of New York, who read a large part of the manuscript and made many valuable suggestions. Lewis Jay Taub provided a great deal of very effective assistance in the preparation of the manuscript and I am pleased to express to him my most sincere thanks. Joyce Rubin's skillful typing of the manuscript is appreciated. We are familiar with the concept of a variable and with the concept of a func- tion of a variable.
The field of a variable, i. For ex- ample,. Thus, for example, suppose we intend that y is to be de- termined from x through the rule that x is to be multiplied by itself, that this product is to be multiplied by 5, and that thereafter 3 is to be added.
In this simple example we determined y by applying the mathemat- 2. When the number of possible val- ues for x is small, it may well be feasible and most convenient to use such a table. Then, as is indicated in Fig. By an easy extension of these elemental ideas, it is clear that the variables, dependent and independent, need not be numerical.
Figure 1. Then the functional relationship between x and y is as given in Fig. The values which can be assumed by x are. A logical variable is a variable which has three distinctive properties:.
The logical variable may assume one or the other of only two possible val- ues.
Herbert Taub - Digital Circuits and Microprocessors-McGraw-Hill (1982)
Digital Circuits and Microprocessors