Background: There are many potential training exercises for office workers in an attempt to prevent musculoskeletal disorders. However, to date a suitable tool to monitor the perceived exertion of those exercises does not exist. Objective: The primary objective of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Borg CR scale to monitor the perceived exertion of office exercise training. Methods: The study involved staff members employed in a government office with an age range from 25 to 50 years.
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The study of human performance and perceived exertion during physical activity has been an area of considerable scientific interest and research over the last 50 years. The symptom of exertion is unique to an individual and can be used as a subjective estimate of the work intensity undertaken across a variety of populations. In its simplest terms, it provides a measure of how hard it feels that the body is working based on the phys ical sensations that the subject experiences, including increased heart rate, increased respiration or breathing rate, increased sweating and muscle fatigue [ 2 ].
The scale is a very simple numerical list. Participants are asked to rate their exertion on the scale during the activity, combining all sensations and feelings of phys ical stress and fatigue. They are told to disregard any one factor such as leg pain or shortness of breath but to try to focus on the whole feeling of exertion.
This number gives an indication of the intensity of activity allowing the participant to speed up or slow down movements. The scale takes seconds to complete and can be researcher or self-administered and used on a single occasion or multiple times. Taken from Borg : Copyright Gunnar Borg. A healthy person can continue but must push themselves beyond their feeling of being very fatigued. This increase in intensity occurs at all work rates [ 3 ].
It is a general intensity scale with special anchors to measure exertion and pain [ 4 ]. The individual is asked to circle or tick the number that best describes breathlessness, on average, over the last 24 h. The use of the Borg RPE scale either on its own or in combination with other measures, such as the Borg CR10, a Visual Analogue Scale VAS and Likert scales, is widespread across the world in many scientific studies but particularly in the field of sports medicine, where it is used by trainers to plan the intensity of training regimes, and in the workplace, where it is used to assess the exertion used in manual handling and physically active work.
A Danish study by Jakobsen et al. They found that over the course of a working day, high neck muscle tension correlated well with high perceived levels of physical exertion. A score of at least 4 on the Borg CR10 scale seemed to indicate high muscular loading was occurring. Borg scales have also been applied in a wider context than just whole body exertion. They have been used in studies of hand grip [ 6 , 7 ] and in assessing the value of cognitive activities during breaks as a means of accelerating recovery from fatigue [ 8 ].
Jacobsen et al. Studies performed in controlled environments have shown a close relationship between perceived physical exertion and work demands expressed as percentage of the individual physical capacity.
This is true for both cardiovascular [ 9 ] and muscular work [ 10 ]; however, studies comparing laboratory findings and real workplace scenarios remain relatively uncommon. Work has, however, been undertaken by Balogh et al. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the results are broadly similar although work by Grant et al. Borg GA. Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion.
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The relationship between rating of perceived exertion and muscle activity during exhaustive constant-load cycling. Int J Sports Med ; 31 : — Self-assessed and directly measured occupational physical activities—influence of musculoskeletal complaints, age and gender. Appl Ergon ; 35 : 49 — Electromyography as a measure of peak and cumulative workload in intermediate care and its relationship to musculoskeletal injury: an exploratory ergonomic study.
Appl Ergon ; 36 : — A comparison of the reproducibility and the sensitivity to change of visual analogue scales, Borg scales, and Likert scales in normal subjects during submaximal exercise. Chest ; : — Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide.
Sign In or Create an Account. Sign In. Advanced Search. Search Menu. Article Navigation. Close mobile search navigation Article Navigation. Volume Article Contents Scoring and interpretation. Clinical usage and validity. Laboratory versus workplace studies of exertion. Oxford Academic. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Scoring and interpretation The scale is a very simple numerical list. Borg RPE. Level of exertion. Open in new tab. Borg CR10 scale. Google Scholar PubMed.
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Citing articles via Web of Science 6. The health and well-being of paramedics - a professional priority. In this issue of Occupational Medicine.
Borg CR-10 Scale as a New Approach to Monitoring Office Exercise Training
As you may know, there are different types of Borg Scales. All scales are easy to use and to understand and give reliable and valid data, but usually for somewhat different purposes. The advantage with the Borg RPE scale is that it because of its construction gives data that grow approximately linearly with HR and oxygen consumption during steady state work on a bicycle ergometer. A great advantage with the Category-Ratio CR scales is that they are Level-Anchored Ratio Scales that combine the value of verbal anchors for level determinations How strong? With ratio data, of course, it is possible to also answer more interesting research questions and apply more advanced statistical analysis.
BORG CR10 Scale
The Borg Dyspnea Scale is not a separate scale. The magnitude of most kinds of experiences can be determined with one of the two CR scales, e. The Borg Angina Scale is not a separate scale. Compare also the Borg Dyspnea Scale.
Rating of perceived exertion
In sports and particularly exercise testing, the rating of perceived exertion RPE , as measured by the Borg rating of perceived exertion scale RPE scale ,    is a frequently used quantitative measure of perceived exertion during physical activity. The original scale introduced by Gunnar Borg rated exertion on a scale of This is especially used in clinical diagnosis of breathlessness and dyspnea, chest pain, angina and musculo-skeletal pain. The CR scale is best suited when there is an overriding sensation arising either from a specific area of the body, for example, muscle pain, ache or fatigue in the quadriceps or from pulmonary responses. The Borg scale can be compared to other linear scales such as the Likert scale or a visual analogue scale. The sensitivity and reproducibility of the results are broadly very similar, although the Borg may outperform the Likert scale in some cases.
Borg CR10 Scale® (Borg Dyspnea Scale)