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The most important promoter of racial ideology in Europe during the midth century was Joseph-Arthur, comte de Gobineau , who had an almost incalculable effect on late 19th-century social theory. Published in —55, his Essay on the Inequality of Human Races was widely read, embellished, and publicized by many different kinds of writers.
He imported some of his arguments from the polygenists, especially the American Samuel Morton. Gobineau claimed that the civilizations established by the three major races of the world white, black, and yellow were all products of the white races and that no civilization could emerge without their cooperation.
The purest of the white races were the Aryans. When Aryans diluted their blood by intermarriage with lower races, they helped to bring about the decline of their civilization. Each race had distinct mental and physical characteristics; they differed in character and natural abilities, such as leadership, economic resourcefulness, creativity, and inventiveness, and in morality and aesthetic sensibilities.
The tall, blond Nordics, who were descendants of the ancient Germanic tribes, were the intellectuals and leaders. Alpines, who were brunet and intermediate in size between Nordics and Mediterraneans, were the peasants and workers; they required the leadership of Nordics.
So were many Germans. The latter saw in his works a formula for unifying the German peoples and ultimately proclaiming their superiority. Many proponents of German nationalism became activists and organized political societies to advance their goals.
Gobineau was befriended by the great composer Richard Wagner , who was a major advocate of racial ideology during the late 19th century. In a long book titled The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century , Chamberlain explained the history of the entire 19th century—with its European conquests, dominance, colonialism, and exploitation—as a product of the great accomplishments of the German people. Though English-born, Chamberlain had a fanatical attraction to all things German and an equally fanatic hatred of Jews.
He believed Jesus was a Teuton, not a Jew, and argued that all Jews had as part of their racial character a moral defect. Fueled by rising anti-Semitism in Europe, race ideology facilitated the manufacture of an image of Jews as a distinct and inferior population.
His speculations about the greatness of the Germans and their destiny were avidly consumed by many, especially young men such as Adolf Hitler and his companions in the National Socialist Party.
As this history shows, European intellectual leaders took the constituent components of the ideology of race and molded them to the exigencies of their particular political and economic circumstances, applying them to their own ethnic and class conflicts. Race thus emerged as a powerful denoter of unbridgeable differences that could be applied to any circumstances, particularly of ethnic conflict. Hereditarian ideology also flourished in late 19th-century England.
Two major writers and proselytizers of the idea of the innate racial superiority of the upper classes were Francis Galton and Herbert Spencer. Galton wrote books with titles such as Hereditary Genius , in which he showed that a disproportionate number of the great men of England—the military leaders, philosophers, scientists, and artists—came from the small upper-class stratum.
Spencer incorporated the themes of biological evolution and social progress into a grand universal scheme. Antedating Darwin, he introduced the ideas of competition, the struggle for existence, and the survival of the fittest. Such actions, he claimed, interfered with the laws of natural evolution; these beliefs became known as social Darwinism. The hereditarian ideologies of European writers in general found a ready market for such ideas among all those nations involved in empire building.
In the United States these ideas paralleled and strengthened the racial ideology then deeply embedded in American values and thought. They had a synergistic effect on ideas of hereditary determinism in many aspects of American life and furthered the acceptance and implementation of IQ tests as an accurate measure of innate human ability. As they were constructing their own racial identities internally, western European nations were also colonizing most of what has been called, in recent times, the Third World , in Asia and Africa.
Since all the colonized and subordinated peoples differed physically from Europeans, the colonizers automatically applied racial categories to them and initiated a long history of discussions about how such populations should be classified.
There is a very wide range of physical characteristics among Third World peoples, and subjective impressions generated much scientific debate, particularly about which features were most useful for racial classification. Experts never reached agreement on such classifications, and some questions, such as how to classify indigenous Australians, were subjects of endless debate and were never resolved.
Race and race ideology had become so deeply entrenched in American and European thought by the end of the 19th century that scholars and other learned people came to believe that the idea of race was universal. They searched for examples of race ideology among indigenous populations and reinterpreted the histories of these peoples in terms of Western conceptions of racial causation for all human achievements or lack thereof.
Thus, the so-called Aryan invasions of the Indian subcontinent that began about bce were seen, and lauded by some, as an example of a racial conquest by a light-skinned race over darker peoples. The Aryans of ancient India not to be confused with the Aryans of 20th-century Nazi and white supremacist ideology were pastoralists who spread south into the Indian subcontinent and intermingled with sedentary peoples, such as the Dravidians, many of whom happened to be very dark-skinned as a result of their long adaptation to a hot, sunny tropical environment.
Out of this fusion of cultures and peoples, modern Indian culture arose. Such conquests and syntheses of new cultural forms have taken place numerous times in human history, even in areas where there was little or no difference in skin colour as, for example, with the westward movements of Mongols and Turkish peoples.
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Essay on the Inequality of Human Races
It is today considered to be one of the earliest examples of scientific racialism. Using scientific disciplines as varied as linguistics and anthropology , Gobineau divides the human species into three major groupings, white, yellow and black, claiming to demonstrate that "history springs only from contact with the white races. However, inevitable miscegenation led to the "downfall of civilizations". Gobineau was a Legitimist who despaired at France's decline into republicanism and centralization. The book was written after the revolution when Gobineau began studying the works of Xavier Bichat and Johann Blumenbach. In a letter to Count Anton von Prokesch-Osten in he describes the book as based upon "a hatred for democracy and its weapon, the Revolution, which I satisfied by showing, in a variety of ways, where revolution and democracy come from and where they are going. By this Gobineau refers to his division of humans into three main races: white, black, and yellow.
The Inequality of Human Races